Journal Article

Anterior tooth morphology and its effect on torque

M. van Loenen, J. Degrieck, G. De Pauw and L. Dermaut

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 27, issue 3, pages 258-262
Published in print June 2005 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online June 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Anterior tooth morphology and its effect on torque

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This study was undertaken to determine the variation in crown–root angle (CRA) of the upper incisors and canines as well as the variation in their labial contour. In addition, the influence of the variability of the labial contour and of different bracket heights on torque was evaluated. Proximal radiographs were taken of 160 extracted maxillary teeth (81 incisors and 79 canines). They were digitized and analysed with Jasc® Paint Shop Pro 7TM and Mathcad 2001 Professional®. The incisal edge, the centre of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ), and the root apex were digitized to define the crown and root long axis. For all teeth the CRA was measured. At several heights of the labial surface a tangent was determined, enabling measurement of the inclination of the labial surface.

The CRA had great variability, ranging from 167 to 195 degrees for the canines (mean value 183 degrees) and from 171 to 195 degrees for the incisors (average 184 degrees). The mean inclinations of the labial surfaces for the incisors varied greatly. Between 4 and 4.5 mm from the incisal edge the standard deviations (SD) were the smallest and between 2 and 4.5 mm from the incisal edge the labial surface angle differed by approximately 10 degrees. For the canines the mean inclinations of the buccal surface also varied. This angle differed by around 10 degrees between 2 and 4.5 mm from the incisal edge, but the SD were much larger than for the incisors.

It can be concluded that placement of a bracket on a tooth at varying heights, still within a clinically acceptable range, results in important differences in the amount of root torque.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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