Journal Article

Influence of growth hormone on the craniofacial complex of transgenic mice

German Omar Ramirez-Yañez, Joseph R. Smid, William George Young and Michael J. Waters

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 27, issue 5, pages 494-500
Published in print October 2005 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online August 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cji028
Influence of growth hormone on the craniofacial complex of transgenic mice

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Growth hormone (GH) secretion affects bone and cartilage physiology. This study investigated the effect of GH on the size of the craniofacial structures and their angular relationship. Three different models of mice with a genetically altered GH axis were used: GH excess (giant), dwarf GH antagonist (dwarf-Ant), and dwarf GH receptor knockout (dwarf-KO) mice. Each model was compared with the corresponding wild type (Wt). Five craniofacial distances were analysed: craniofacial length, upper face height, mandibular anterior height, mandibular ramus length, and mandibular corpus length. In addition, upper and lower incisor lengths and four angular relationships, nasal bone with cranial base, maxillary plane with cranial base, mandibular plane with cranial base, and the angle of the mandible, were determined. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA.

Craniofacial length, upper face height and mandibular corpus length were significantly increased in the giant mice and significantly reduced in the dwarf mice. Mandibular anterior height and mandibular ramus length were significantly affected in the dwarf-KO mice but not in the giant mice. The length of both the upper and lower incisors was significantly increased and reduced in the giant and dwarf-KO mice, respectively. In addition, the angle of the mandible was significantly increased in the giant mice and significantly reduced in the dwarf mice. It is concluded that GH plays a major role in the growth and development of the craniofacial complex by directly and indirectly modulating the size and the angular relationships of the craniofacial structures, including the incisor teeth.

Journal Article.  4739 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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