Journal Article

Roentgen–cephalometric standards for a Swedish population. A longitudinal study between the ages of 5 and 31 years

Birgit Thilander, Maurits Persson and Ulf Adolfsson

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 27, issue 4, pages 370-389
Published in print August 2005 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online August 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Roentgen–cephalometric standards for a Swedish population. A longitudinal study between the ages of 5 and 31 years

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This study was performed to establish age- and gender-specific cephalometric normative data for a Swedish population. The material comprised 469 lateral cephalograms from two groups of subjects of Swedish origin between 5 and 31 years of age. All subjects (males and females) were diagnosed as ‘normal’ according to specified criteria and with no history of orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms and body height measurements were taken at 5, 7, 10 and 13 years of age in one group (group E) (longitudinal follow-up). The same registrations were made in the other group (group U) at 7, 10 and13 years of age (mixed longitudinal type). Those 13 year olds were re-examined at 16, 19 and 31 years of age (longitudinal follow-up). No significant differences between age groups in the two samples were found. Therefore, subjects of the same age were combined. The study is hence regarded as a longitudinal follow-up from 5 to 31 years of age. The subjects were also grouped into dental development stages to widen the applicability of the cephalometric data.

The craniofacial distances were constantly larger in males than in females, while no statistical differences as regards angular measurements were seen between genders. Distances as well as angular measurements varied with the different developmental periods. The results clearly verify that facial pattern changes existed during the observation period, with a growth acceleration of most distances between the 13 and 16 year recordings.

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Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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