Journal Article

How does temperature influence the properties of rectangular nickel–titanium wires?

Maurício Tatsuei Sakima, Michel Dalstra and Birte Melsen

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 28, issue 3, pages 282-291
Published in print June 2006 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online September 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
How does temperature influence the properties of rectangular nickel–titanium wires?

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Thermodynamic nickel–titanium (NiTi) wires have become increasingly popular. The relationship between the temperature variation within the mouth and the force level delivered is, however, far from elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of possible intraoral temperature differences on the forces exerted by seven commercially available 0.019 × 0.025 inch NiTi archwires. As mouth temperature ranges from 33 to 37°C most of the time, all wires were tested at five different temperatures between 30 and 40°C in an orthodontic wire-testing device, a so-called Force System Identification (FSI) apparatus, placed in a climate chamber. In the FSI a two-bracket system using self-ligating Damon brackets simulated first order displacements up to 4 mm. At each temperature five samples of each archwire brand were tested. The following variables from the activation/deactivation curves were calculated: force and displacement at the yield point, maximum force level, total energy up to maximum displacement, energy loss after deactivation, force and displacement at the beginning and at the finish of the plateau, and the slope of the plateau. Any statistically significant differences in these variables for the different brands and temperature levels were analysed using one-way analysis of variance.

The results showed that: (1) The behaviour of all wires was different. (2) Copper NiTi40 showed the lowest and the most constant force level, followed by NeoSentalloy 200 g. On the other hand, these wires may not work properly in mouth breathers as no forces were exerted below 35°C. (3) If the use of superelastic characteristics and low force levels are the reasons for utilizing rectangular NiTi wires, austenitic NiTi wires should be avoided.

Journal Article.  3934 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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