Journal Article

Early biofilm formation and the effects of antimicrobial agents on orthodontic bonding materials in a parallel plate flow chamber

Mervyn Y. H. Chin, Henk J. Busscher, Robert Evans, Joseph Noar and Jonathan Pratten

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 28, issue 1, pages 1-7
Published in print February 2006 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online December 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Early biofilm formation and the effects of antimicrobial agents on orthodontic bonding materials in a parallel plate flow chamber

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Decalcification is a commonly recognized complication of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A technology, based on a parallel plate flow chamber, was developed to investigate early biofilm formation of a strain of Streptococcus sanguis on the surface of four orthodontic bonding materials: glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC), chemically-cured composite resin (Concise) and light-cured composite resin (Transbond XT). S. sanguis was used as it is one of the primary colonizers of dental hard surfaces. Artificial saliva was supplied as a source of nutrients for the biofilms. The effects of two commercially available mouthrinses (i.e. a fluoride containing rinse and chlorhexidine) were evaluated. Initial colonization of the bacterium was assessed after 6 hours of growth by the percentage surface coverage (PSC) of the biofilm on the disc surfaces.

There were statistically significant differences in bacterial accumulation between different bonding materials (P < 0.05), Concise being the least colonized and Transbond XT being the most colonized by S. sanguis biofilms. All materials pre-treated with 0.05 per cent sodium fluoride mouthrinse showed more than 50 per cent reduction in biofilm formation. The 0.2 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse caused significant reduction of biofilm formation on all materials except Ketac Cem.

This in vitro study showed that the use of a chemically-cured composite resin (Concise) reduced early S. sanguis biofilm formation. Also, fluoride had a greater effect in reducing the PSC by S. sanguis biofilms than chlorhexidine. Rinsing with 0.05 per cent sodium fluoride prior to placement of orthodontic appliances is effective in reducing early biofilm formation.

Journal Article.  4397 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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