Journal Article

Root growth in the permanent teeth of 45,X/46,XX females

Raija Lähdesmäki and Lassi Alvesalo

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 28, issue 4, pages 339-344
Published in print August 2006 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online May 2006 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cji121
Root growth in the permanent teeth of 45,X/46,XX females

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Studies on individuals with sex chromosome anomalies have provided proof of a direct differential promoting effect of the X and Y chromosome genes on tooth crown growth. 45,X/46,XX females are one subgroup of Turner patients who have both normal XX and one X sex chromosome cell lines. Their permanent tooth crown size is reduced, which is mainly due to thin enamel. 45,X females likewise show reduced crown size and enamel thickness, and their root size is reduced. By contrast, the lengths of the roots in 47,XYY males or males with an extra Y chromosome and 46,XY females or females with a male sex chromosome constitution are increased. The aim of the present study was to investigate permanent tooth root lengths in 45,X/46,XX females to obtain additional information on their dental growth.

The study group consisted of 15 45,X/46,XX females, mean age 23.4 years; 10 female relatives, mean age 24.5 years; and 47 population control females, mean age 29.8 years, from the Kvantti research project. Root length measurements were made from panoramic radiographs on both sides of the jaw using a sliding digital calliper.

The results showed that permanent tooth root lengths in 45,X/46,XX females were, in most cases, significantly shorter than those of the population controls or relatives. It is apparent that a reduced tooth crown size in 45,X/46,XX females is followed by reduced root growth. This begins 3 years after birth and continues to at least 14 years of age. It is suggested that the reduction in crown and root growth in 45,X/4,XX females is due to a deficiency in the amount of dental growth-promoting genes on the sex chromosomes.

Journal Article.  3425 words. 

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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