Journal Article

Biomechanics of a modified Pendulum appliance—theoretical considerations and <i>in vitro</i> analysis of the force systems

Gero S. M. Kinzinger and Peter R. Diedrich

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 29, issue 1, pages 1-7
Published in print February 2007 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online August 2006 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Biomechanics of a modified Pendulum appliance—theoretical considerations and in vitro analysis of the force systems

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The aim of this study was to analyse the acting forces and moments induced by a special orthodontic appliance, the Pendulum K, for molar distalization in the transverse and sagittal planes.

The purpose-designed test set-up (artificial maxilla with anchorage unit and two electrothermodynamic molars, an electronic measuring unit, a unit with force–moment sensor, an analogue/digital converter, and a data read-out unit) allowed simulation of in vivo conditions on the one hand and precise determination of the force systems on the other. The appliances investigated were three specimens of the Pendulum K.

In vitro measurement of the resulting force systems revealed that the forces and moments in the transverse and sagittal planes remained almost constant over a 3 mm measuring increment when the distal screw was continuously activated (10 activations/mm). Without reactivation of the incorporated distal screw, however, a marked decline in the force systems was recorded.

The Pendulum K allows translatory distalization of the upper molars and thus dental arch expansion, dispensing with the need for permanent teeth to be extracted, subject to a corresponding indication. This is achieved by continuous adjustment of an incorporated distal screw and by specific pre-activations of the Pendulum springs.

Journal Article.  3667 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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