Journal Article

<i>In vitro</i> toxicity evaluation of silver soldering, electrical resistance, and laser welding of orthodontic wires

Silvia Sestini, Laura Notarantonio, Barbara Cerboni, Carlo Alessandrini, Michele Fimiani, Pietro Nannelli, Antonio Pelagalli and Roberto Giorgetti

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 28, issue 6, pages 567-572
Published in print December 2006 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online October 2006 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjl048
In vitro toxicity evaluation of silver soldering, electrical resistance, and laser welding of orthodontic wires

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The long-term effects of orthodontic appliances in the oral environment and the subsequent leaching of metals are relatively unknown. A method for determining the effects of various types of soldering and welding, both of which in turn could lead to leaching of metal ions, on the growth of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and oral keratinocytes in vitro, is proposed. The effects of cell behaviour of metal wires on osteoblast differentiation, expressed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity; on fibroblast proliferation, assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenil)-2H-tetrazolium–phenazine ethosulphate method; and on keratinocyte viability and migration on the wires, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were tested.

Two types of commercially available wires normally used for orthodontic appliances, with a similar chemical composition (iron, carbon, silicon, chromium, molybdenum, phosphorus, sulphur, vanadium, and nitrogen) but differing in nickel and manganese content, were examined, as well as the joints obtained by electrical resistance welding, traditional soldering, and laser welding. Nickel and chromium, known as possible toxic metals, were also examined using pure nickel- and chromium-plated titanium wires. Segments of each wire, cut into different lengths, were added to each well in which the cells were grown to confluence.

The high nickel and chromium content of orthodontic wires damaged both osteoblasts and fibroblasts, but did not affect keratinocytes. Chromium strongly affected fibroblast growth. The joint produced by electrical resistance welding was well tolerated by both osteoblasts and fibroblasts, whereas traditional soldering caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in both osteoblast ALP activity and fibroblast viability, and prevented the growth of keratinocytes in vitro. Laser welding was the only joining process well tolerated by all tested cells.

Journal Article.  2865 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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