Journal Article

The use of three-dimensional oral mucosa cell cultures to assess the toxicity of soldered and welded wires

Bart Vande Vannet, Jean-Louis Hanssens and Heinrich Wehrbein

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 29, issue 1, pages 60-66
Published in print February 2007 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online February 2007 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
The use of three-dimensional oral mucosa cell cultures to assess the toxicity of soldered and welded wires

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The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a difference in toxicity and loss of viability of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed human oral epithelium (RHOE) cell cultures induced by point-welded (PW), laser-welded (LW), and silver-soldered (SiS) orthodontic wires. Three types of soldered stainless steel (SS) wires: PW, LW, and SiS were prepared (n = 3) and subjected to multiple end-point analysis (MEA). Six pieces were cut from each wire. Each piece was placed on the triplicate cell cultures (RHOE model based on TR 146 cells). After 24 hours of topical exposure, the cell cultures were cut and stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Toxicity was assessed by evaluating the morphological changes and classifying these as mild, moderate, or severe. The in vitro cell cultures were subjected to a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in order to quantify viability. Copper wires served as the control to determine severe toxicity and native cell cultures were used as a baseline. Untreated SS wire (0.9 mm) was included for comparison with the welded wires.

Histological evaluation with respect to toxicity and measurement of viability in the 3D cell cultures showed no severe toxicity or loss of viability for any of the wires. The morphological ranking of the tested wires from mild to severe toxicity was: SS = PW = LW < SiS. MTT tests revealed the following mean viability values: native cell line (negative control) 98.1 per cent, SS 96.8 per cent, PW 95.5 per cent, LW 95.5 per cent, SiS 85.7 per cent, and copper wires (positive control) 51.2 per cent. Relative comparison between the different welding techniques tested on RHOE revealed, however, that LW and PW wires induced less toxicity/loss of viability compared with SiS wires.

Journal Article.  3272 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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