Journal Article

The cytotoxicity of orthodontic metal bracket immersion media

Chia-Tze Kao, Shinn-Jyh Ding, Yan Min, Ting Cheng Hsu, Ming-Yung Chou and Tsui-Hsien Huang

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 29, issue 2, pages 198-203
Published in print April 2007 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online February 2007 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
The cytotoxicity of orthodontic metal bracket immersion media

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  • Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics


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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of four different orthodontic metal bracket immersion media on primary human oral gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and one permanent human osteogenic sarcoma cell line (U2OS). Four different metal brackets (Unitek, Tomy, Ormco, and Dentaurum) were immersed in buffer solutions of NaHNO3 (1 mM) with a pH of 4 or 7, as well as artificial saliva. The concentrations for the experiments were 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 μl/ml. At the end of the period of bracket immersion, morphological observations were conducted using light microscopy. The tetrazolium reduction assay was used to detect the survival rate of the target cells. Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way analysis of variance.

The results showed microscopically no morphological changes of the HGF or U2OS cells exposed to the metal bracket immersion media. At pH 4, the survival rates of the U2OS cells and the HGFs differed statistically for the Unitek (P = 0.003) and Ormco (P = 0.000) groups. At pH 7, the survival rate for the HGFs and the U2OS cells differed statistically for the Dentaurum (P = 0.021) and Unitek (P = 0.03) groups. The results demonstrate that differing cells exhibit various cellular reactions on exposure to metal bracket immersion media, although the four types of brackets appear to be biocompatible with HGF and U2OS cells.

Journal Article.  3043 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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