Journal Article

Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical dimension

Hideki Ioi, Shunsuke Nakata, Akihiko Nakasima and Amy L. Counts

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 29, issue 5, pages 493-499
Published in print October 2007 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online October 2007 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical dimension

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The aims of this study were to determine Japanese cephalometric norms in the antero-posterior and vertical dimension, and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurements between Japanese and Caucasian norms. Radiographs were obtained from 25 healthy Japanese males (aged 25.1 ± 2.7 years) and 24 healthy Japanese females (aged 23.6 ± 1.3 years). Inclusion criteria were an ANB angle between 2 and 5 degrees, a normal occlusion with minor or no crowding, all teeth present except third molars, no previous orthodontic treatment, and no prosthetic replacement of teeth. Two angular and five linear measurements were constructed for the skeletal hard tissue analysis, one angular and six linear measurements for the dental hard tissue analysis, and two angular and seven linear measurements for the soft tissue analysis. The mean and standard deviations for the hard and soft tissue measurements were determined for each gender. Unpaired t-tests were used to determine the mean differences for each cephalometric measurement between the Japanese and the Caucasians.

In the antero-posterior dimension, the Japanese subjects had a significantly more retruded chin position (P < 0.001), typically protruding mandibular incisors, and protruded lip positions compared with the Caucasian norms. In the vertical dimension, the Japanese had a significantly steeper mandibular plane (P < 0.01). The Japanese females had a significantly larger lower face height and increased dental height (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that these cephalometric measurements might be helpful to formulate treatment plans for Japanese patients.

Journal Article.  3591 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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