Journal Article

Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire

Jens Johannes Bock, Wolfgang Fraenzel, Jacqueline Bailly, Christian Ralf Gernhardt and Robert Andreas Werner Fuhrmann

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 30, issue 4, pages 396-400
Published in print August 2008 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online July 2008 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire

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  • Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics


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The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450°C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers’ guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P < 0.05).

In all cases, brazing joints ruptured at low levels of tensile strength (198 ± 146 MPa). Significant differences (P < 0.001) between brazing and TIG or laser welding were found. The highest means were observed for TIG welding (699–754 MPa). Laser welding showed a significantly lower mean tensile strength (369–520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22–2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21–2.68 GPa).

For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method.

Journal Article.  2593 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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