Journal Article

Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile of Turkish adults

Sıddık Malkoç, Abdullah Demir, Tancan Uysal and Naci Canbuldu

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 31, issue 2, pages 174-179
Published in print April 2009 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online December 2008 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile of Turkish adults

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One of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is the evaluation of the patient's soft tissue profile. The aim of this study was to develop angular photogrammetric standards for Class I Anatolian Turkish males and females.

A random sample of 100 Turkish individuals (46 males and 54 females; ages 19–25 years) was obtained. The photographic set-up consisted of a tripod that held a 35 mm camera and a primary flash. The camera was used in its manual position and photographic records were taken of the subjects in natural head posture. The photographic records, 35 mm slide format, were digitized and analyzed using the Quick Ceph Image software program for Windows. Twelve measurements were digitally analyzed on each photograph. For statistical evaluation a Student's t-test was performed and the reliability of the method was analyzed. The results were compared with reported norms of facial aesthetics.

The nasofrontal (G–N–Prn), nasal (Cm–Sn/N–Prn), vertical nasal (N–Prn/TV), and nasal dorsum (N–Mn–Prn) angles showed statistically insignificant gender differences (P > 0.05). The nasolabial angle (Cm–Sn–Ls) demonstrated large variability. Gender differences were present in the mentolabial (Li–Sm–Pg) and cervicomental (G–Pg/C–Me) angles. The mentolabial angle showed a high method error and large variability. Facial (G–Sn–Pg) and total facial (G–Prn–Pg) convexity angles were similar, while Cm–Sn–Ls angle range was larger compared with other angles.

The mean values obtained from this sample can be used for comparison with records of subjects with the same characteristics and following the same photogrammetric technique. Angular photogrammetric profile analysis can provide the orthodontist with a way of determining problems associated with various soft tissue segments of the face.

Journal Article.  3558 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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