Journal Article

Proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells following short-term tooth movement in the rat using different regimens of loading

Dimitrios Pavlidis, Christoph Bourauel, Alireza Rahimi, Werner Götz and Andreas Jäger

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 31, issue 6, pages 565-571
Published in print December 2009 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online July 2009 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjp053
Proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells following short-term tooth movement in the rat using different regimens of loading

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Previous studies have indicated that periodontal ligament (PDL) cells demonstrate osteogenic potential and osteoblastic differentiation via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway under mechanical stress in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to further analyse this regulatory process experimentally in the rat.

The right upper first molars of 25 twelve-week-old male Wistar anaesthetized rats were loaded with forces in order to be moved mesially. Constant forces for 4 hours of 0.25 and 0.5 N were applied in five animals each. Furthermore, constant forces for 2 hours of 0.1 N were applied in 10 animals and afterwards, the first and second molars were permanently separated with composite. In these animals, the antagonists were sliced and five rats were killed after 1 day and five after 2 days. As a last experiment, intermittent forces of 0.1 N and 0.25 Hz were applied in five different animals for 4 hours. The untreated contralateral sides served as the control. Paraffin-embedded sections were analysed by immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2/Cbfa1), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2). Statistical analysis to determine differences between the groups was carried out using a Student's t-test.

In selected areas under tension, the proportion of pERK1/2-positive cells was increased compared with those in control teeth under all types of loading, whereas these proportions in selected areas under pressure were increased only after the application of intermittent forces. In representative areas, both under tension and pressure, the proportion of Runx2-positive cells decreased after the application of constant forces. After the application of constant forces for 4 hours in representative areas, both under tension and pressure, the proportion of PCNA-positive cells was lower than those in control teeth.

The involvement of pERK1/2, Runx2/cbfa-1, and PCNA in the reaction of PDL cells to different load regimens was verified.

Journal Article.  3685 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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