Journal Article

<i>In vitro</i> evaluation of the frictional forces between brackets and archwire with three passive self-ligating brackets

Giancarlo Cordasco, Giampietro Farronato, Felice Festa, Riccardo Nucera, Elena Parazzoli and Giovanni Battista Grossi

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 31, issue 6, pages 643-646
Published in print December 2009 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online October 2009 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
In vitro evaluation of the frictional forces between brackets and archwire with three passive self-ligating brackets

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The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the frictional forces between bracket and archwire that included three passive self-ligating brackets (Damon SL2 SDS). The brackets were individually bonded to a brass mount using a preformed 0.021 × 0.025 inch stainless steel wire jig in order to exclude adverse tipping or torsion. The central bracket was positioned 1 mm higher than the others, in order that the three brackets were vertically unaligned. Thirty-six similar set-ups including in total 108 brackets were investigated using the same wire: copper (nickel–titanium) 0.014 inches. A testing machine was designed and constructed to measure the frictional forces between the wire and the three-bracket set-up. Twelve set-ups were tested to measure kinetic frictional forces between the wire and unaligned passive self-ligating brackets used in the closed position. The frictional properties of two sets of 12 three-bracket set-ups (control) were tested and measured with an open slide and conventional ligation. A stainless steel ligature wire was used in the former, while elastomeric modules were employed in the latter.

One-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of ligation mode on the frictional properties of the three-bracket set-ups (P < 0.001). Post hoc pairwise comparison showed that the frictional forces arising from passive self-ligation were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those resulting from elastic ligation. The same result was achieved when comparing self-ligation and metallic ligation (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found when comparing elastic and metallic ligation.

Journal Article.  2238 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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