Journal Article

Debonding force and deformation of two multi-stranded lingual retainer wires bonded to incisor enamel: an <i>in vitro</i> study

M. E. Cooke and M. Sherriff

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 32, issue 6, pages 741-746
Published in print December 2010 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online June 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Debonding force and deformation of two multi-stranded lingual retainer wires bonded to incisor enamel: an in vitro study

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The aim of the study was to examine, in vitro, the effect of a vertical force on the debond force and deformation of two multi-stranded wires bonded to the lingual enamel of lower incisor teeth.

Two different stainless steel wires were used, 0.016 × 0.022 inch (Bond-A-Braid® Reliance Orthodontic Products) and a three-stranded 0.0175 inch wire (Ortho Technology). An in vitro model was used to simulate a vertical force at the interdental wire. Twenty-six pairs of incisors were placed in two groups. A 15 mm length of wire was bonded to the lingual surfaces of each pair of incisors using a common bonding technique. A vertical force was applied to the midpoint of the interdental wire, using an Instron universal testing machine. The failure characteristics examined included the maximum force for debond, the degree of wire deformation, and the site of failure.

Significance was predetermined at P < 0.05 and multiple comparisons indicated no significant differences (P = 0.147) in the initial mean bond strength between the 0.0175 inch (41.44 N) and 0.016 × 0.022 inch (37.70 N) wires. The main failure type for both the initial and second debond events was fracture of composite bond at the wire–composite interface, cohesive failure. Both wires exhibited similar mean degrees of deflection of 1.30 and 1.51 mm for the 0.0175 inch and 0.016 × 0.022 inch wires, respectively. Rebonding to enamel resulted in significantly lower (P = 0.001) mean bond strength for both wires, 0.0175 inch (13.86 N) and 0.016 × 0.022 inch (14.17 N) in comparison with the initial bond strength. Rebonding to previously bonded enamel may be unpredictable and may lead to higher failure rates of bonded lingual retainers.

Journal Article.  4035 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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