Journal Article

Meta-analysis of skeletal mandibular changes during Fränkel appliance treatment

Letizia Perillo, Rosangela Cannavale, Fabrizia Ferro, Lorenzo Franchi, Caterina Masucci, Paolo Chiodini and Tiziano Baccetti

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 33, issue 1, pages 84-92
Published in print February 2011 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online July 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Meta-analysis of skeletal mandibular changes during Fränkel appliance treatment

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The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of articles to verify the mandibular changes produced by the Fränkel-2 (FR-2) appliance during the treatment of growing patients with Class II malocclusions when compared with untreated growing Class II subjects.

The literature published from January 1966 to January 2009 was reviewed with search engines. A quality analysis was performed. The effects on primary end points were calculated with random-effect models. Heterogeneity was assessed using Q statistic and investigated using study-level meta-regression.

A total of nine articles were identified. The quality of the studies ranged from low to medium. Meta-analysis showed that the FR-2 was associated with enhancement of mandibular body length [0.4 mm/year 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 0.182–0.618], total mandibular length (1.069 mm/year, 95 per cent CI 0.683–1.455), and mandibular ramus height (0.654 mm/year, 95 per cent CI 0.244–1.064). A consistent heterogeneity among studies was found for all the considered linear measurements.

The FR-2 appliance had a statistically significant effect on mandibular growth. Nevertheless, the heterogeneity of the FR-2 effects, the quality of studies, the differences in age, skeletal age, treatment duration, and the inconsistent initial diagnosis seem to overstate the benefits of the FR-2 appliance.

An evidence-based approach to the orthodontic outcomes of FR-2 appliance is needed, by selecting and comparing groups of children with the same cephalometric characteristics with and without treatment.

Journal Article.  4676 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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