Journal Article

Posteroanterior cephalometric norms for an adolescent Kuwaiti population

Rashed Al-Azemi and Jon Årtun

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 34, issue 3, pages 312-317
Published in print June 2012 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online March 2011 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Posteroanterior cephalometric norms for an adolescent Kuwaiti population

Show Summary Details


The aim of the study was to establish posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric norms for adolescent Kuwaitis of an age comparable with the start of comprehensive orthodontic treatment, and to compare these with similar normative data, considering a difference of 2.0 mm or degrees as clinically significant. Digital PA cephalograms of 159 13- to 14-year-old Kuwaitis (81 boys and 78 girls) with untreated ideal occlusions were evaluated. Anatomic landmarks were identified directly on digital computer images and linear and angular measurements were calculated electronically. Mean values (norms), standard deviations, and ranges were calculated for the parameters. Student's t-tests were employed to test for gender differences.

The dental norms were clinically similar to those of Ricketts’ analysis, but the ranges of the skeletal dental width and relationship measurements were clinically larger. Only the ranges of skeletal symmetry measurements were larger. Regarding the four dental to skeletal relationships, the norms were larger only for the molar to jaw relationship, while the ranges were larger for all. No gender differences were detected after Bonferroni adjustments. The findings suggest clinically significant racial differences in PA cephaolometric norms with minimal gender differences at adolescence. The ranges of the various parameters in adolescent subjects with natural development of an ideal occlusion are considerably larger than those suggested in Ricketts’ analysis system.

Journal Article.  3680 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.