Journal Article

Growth of the cervical vertebrae in girls from 8 to 17 years. A longitudinal study

Müge Altan, Öykü Nebioğlu Dalcı and Haluk İşeri

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 34, issue 3, pages 327-334
Published in print June 2012 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online April 2011 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Growth of the cervical vertebrae in girls from 8 to 17 years. A longitudinal study

Show Summary Details


An important criterion of orthodontic diagnosis is the determination of the skeletal maturation stage. The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is presented as an alternative to skeletal maturation determination. However, studies published to date concerning CVM have generally been cross-sectional. The aim of this investigation was to longitudinally evaluate growth and development with the CVM method. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 41 girls, aged 9–16 years, collected between 1978 and 1984 were used to evaluate changes in C2, C3, and C4 dimensions. The mean values, standard deviations, maximum and minimum values of cervical vertebrae growth, and growth rate were calculated for every age and age interval. Cumulative growth increment was determined by summing annual mean values for each parameter. CVM stages were initially evaluated according to the method of Lamparski. The time differences between the following CVM stages were evaluated with a paired t-test.

The total length increment was distinct for C2 but similar for C1, C3, and C4. Total length increments reached their maximum between CVM stages 2 and 3, except for C3. The total length increment of C3 reached its peak 1 year earlier. The height increments of the spinose processes of C2, C3, and C4 were similar. The results showed that height increments were greater than length increments, which was due to changes in the anatomical pattern. Vertical growth displayed a decreasing trend from the upper to the lower cervical vertebrae. Determination of skeletal maturation from dimensional measurements and anatomical changes of the cervical vertebrae will facilitate orthodontic evaluation by eliminating the need for hand–wrist films and, therefore, decrease the patient’s exposure to radiation.

Journal Article.  4932 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.