Journal Article

Appreciation of cleft lip and palate treatment outcome by professionals and laypeople

Despina A. Papamanou, Nikolaos Gkantidis, Nikolaos Topouzelis and Panagiotis Christou

in The European Journal of Orthodontics

Published on behalf of European Orthodontics Society

Volume 34, issue 5, pages 553-560
Published in print October 2012 | ISSN: 0141-5387
Published online July 2011 | e-ISSN: 1460-2210 | DOI:
Appreciation of cleft lip and palate treatment outcome by professionals and laypeople

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The aim of the study was to analyse the aesthetic evaluation of head photographs of treated individuals with clefts by laypeople and professionals and to investigate how certain cephalometric variables could be related to their rating. A set of five standardized head photos (frontal, both laterals, three-quater right and left) of 12 Caucasian patients with treated unilateral cleft lip and palate were presented to 12 adult laypeople, 12 orthodontists, and 12 maxillofacial surgeons. For each set of photos the judges had to answer four questions on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The answers were analysed for intra- and inter-panel level of agreement and correlations of assessments with certain cephalometric parameters were determined. There was a high level of agreement for all assessments of each panel of raters. However, laypeople were less satisfied with lip and nose aesthetics compared to professionals. The three groups were similarly satisfied with the aesthetics of the jaws and the face. The anterior position of the maxilla (SNA) influenced positively professionals’ ratings of facial aesthetics. Orthodontists were negatively influenced when the vertical dimension of the face or the distance of the lower lip to E-plane were relatively increased. The latter was the only cephalometric parameter correlated with lower aesthetic scores obtained from laypeople. Professionals report greater satisfaction from the treatment outcome and evaluate cleft consequences with less severity than laypeople. According to cephalometric findings, the relative positions of the lips seem to dominate facial aesthetics’ appreciation by laypeople, while specialists appear to focus on different features of the face.

Journal Article.  4009 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics

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