Journal Article

Long Conserved Fragments Upstream of Mammalian Polyadenylation Sites

Eric S. Ho and Samuel I. Gunderson

in Genome Biology and Evolution

Published on behalf of Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution

Volume 3, issue , pages 654-666
Published in print January 2011 |
Published online June 2011 | e-ISSN: 1759-6653 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evr053

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Polyadenylation is a cotranscriptional nuclear RNA processing event involving endonucleolytic cleavage of the nascent, emerging pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) from the RNA polymerase, immediately followed by the polymerization of adenine ribonucleotides, called the poly(A) tail, to the cleaved 3′ end of the polyadenylation site (PAS). This apparently simple molecular processing step has been discovered to be connected to transcription and splicing therefore increasing its potential for regulation of gene expression. Here, through a bioinformatic analysis of cis-PAS–regulatory elements in mammals that includes taking advantage of multiple evolutionary time scales, we find unexpected selection pressure much further upstream, up to 200 nt, from the PAS than previously thought. Strikingly, close to 3,000 long (30–500 nt) noncoding conserved fragments (CFs) were discovered in the PAS flanking region of three remotely related mammalian species, human, mouse, and cow. When an even more remote transitional mammal, platypus, was included, still over a thousand CFs were found in the proximity of the PAS. Even though the biological function of these CFs remains unknown, their considerable sizes makes them unlikely to serve as protein recognition sites, which are typically ≤15 nt. By harnessing genome wide DNaseI hypersensitivity data, we have discovered that the presence of CFs correlates with chromatin accessibility. Our study is important in highlighting novel experimental targets, which may provide new understanding about the regulatory aspects of polyadenylation.

Keywords: polyadenylation; cis-regulatory elements; bioinformatics; conserved fragments

Journal Article.  7918 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Bioinformatics and Computational Biology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Genetics and Genomics

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