Journal Article

Virtual Genomes in Flux: An Interplay of Neutrality and Adaptability Explains Genome Expansion and Streamlining

Thomas D. Cuypers and Paulien Hogeweg

in Genome Biology and Evolution

Published on behalf of Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution

Volume 4, issue 3, pages 212-229
Published in print January 2012 |
Published online January 2012 | e-ISSN: 1759-6653 | DOI:

More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Genetics and Genomics


Show Summary Details


The picture that emerges from phylogenetic gene content reconstructions is that genomes evolve in a dynamic pattern of rapid expansion and gradual streamlining. Ancestral organisms have been estimated to possess remarkably rich gene complements, although gene loss is a driving force in subsequent lineage adaptation and diversification. Here, we study genome dynamics in a model of virtual cells evolving to maintain homeostasis. We observe a pattern of an initial rapid expansion of the genome and a prolonged phase of mutational load reduction. Generally, load reduction is achieved by the deletion of redundant genes, generating a streamlining pattern. Load reduction can also occur as a result of the generation of highly neutral genomic regions. These regions can expand and contract in a neutral fashion. Our study suggests that genome expansion and streamlining are generic patterns of evolving systems. We propose that the complex genotype to phenotype mapping in virtual cells as well as in their biological counterparts drives genome size dynamics, due to an emerging interplay between adaptation, neutrality, and evolvability.

Keywords: gene content; evolutionary modeling; streamlining; genome expansion; virtual cell; evolution of complexity

Journal Article.  11207 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Bioinformatics and Computational Biology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Genetics and Genomics

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.