Journal Article

Proteomics Reveals Plastid- and Periplastid-Targeted Proteins in the Chlorarachniophyte Alga <i>Bigelowiella natans</i>

Julia F. Hopkins, David F. Spencer, Sylvie Laboissiere, Jonathan A.D. Neilson, Robert J.M. Eveleigh, Dion G. Durnford, Michael W. Gray and John M. Archibald

in Genome Biology and Evolution

Published on behalf of Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution

Volume 4, issue 12, pages 1391-1406
Published in print January 2012 |
Published online December 2012 | e-ISSN: 1759-6653 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evs115

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Chlorarachniophytes are unicellular marine algae with plastids (chloroplasts) of secondary endosymbiotic origin. Chlorarachniophyte cells retain the remnant nucleus (nucleomorph) and cytoplasm (periplastidial compartment, PPC) of the green algal endosymbiont from which their plastid was derived. To characterize the diversity of nucleus-encoded proteins targeted to the chlorarachniophyte plastid, nucleomorph, and PPC, we isolated plastid–nucleomorph complexes from the model chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans and subjected them to high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our proteomic analysis, the first of its kind for a nucleomorph-bearing alga, resulted in the identification of 324 proteins with 95% confidence. Approximately 50% of these proteins have predicted bipartite leader sequences at their amino termini. Nucleus-encoded proteins make up >90% of the proteins identified. With respect to biological function, plastid-localized light-harvesting proteins were well represented, as were proteins involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that many, but by no means all, of the proteins identified in our proteomic screen are of apparent green algal ancestry, consistent with the inferred evolutionary origin of the plastid and nucleomorph in chlorarachniophytes.

Keywords: chlorarachniophyte algae; plastids; nucleomorphs; proteome; mass spectrometry; evolution

Journal Article.  10363 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Bioinformatics and Computational Biology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Genetics and Genomics

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