Reference Entry

Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1804 - 1864), novelist, writer

Michael Hovland

in Grove Music Online

Volume Grove Music Online, issue Published in print January 2001 |
Published online January 2001 | e-ISBN: 9781561592630

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(b Salem, MA, 4 July 1804; d Plymouth, NH, 19 May 1864). American novelist and writer. He worked in the customs houses of Boston (1839–41) and Salem (1845–9) and was US Consul at Liverpool, 1853–7. His writings, which include five novels and several volumes of short stories, have inspired more musical adaptations than the fiction of any other American. There are more than 11 operas on The Scarlet Letter

Reference Entry.  255 words. 

Subjects: Music

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