Journal Article

Biochemical, pathologic and behavioral analysis of a mouse model of glutaric acidemia type I

David M. Koeller, Michael Woontner, Linda S. Crnic, Bette Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Janet Stephens, Edgar L. Hunt and Stephen I. Goodman

in Human Molecular Genetics

Volume 11, issue 4, pages 347-357
Published in print February 2002 | ISSN: 0964-6906
Published online February 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2083 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/11.4.347
Biochemical, pathologic and behavioral analysis of  a mouse model of glutaric acidemia type I

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Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism resulting from a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). Patients accumulate glutaric acid (GA) and 3-OH glutaric acid (3-OHGA) in their blood, urine and CSF. Clinically, GA-I is characterized by macrocephaly, progressive dystonia and dyskinesia. Degeneration of the caudate and putamen of the basal ganglia, widening of the Sylvian fissures, fronto-temporal atrophy and severe spongiform change in the white matter are also commonly observed. In this report we describe the phenotype of a mouse model of GA-I generated via targeted deletion of the Gcdh gene in embryonic stem cells. The Gcdh–/– mice have a biochemical phenotype very similar to human GA-I patients, including elevations of GA and 3-OHGA at levels similar to those seen in GA-I patients. The affected mice have a mild motor deficit but do not develop the progressive dystonia seen in human patients. Pathologically, the Gcdh–/– mice have a diffuse spongiform myelinopathy similar to that seen in GA-I patients. However, unlike in human patients, there is no evidence of neuron loss or astrogliosis in the striatum. Subjecting the Gcdh–/– mice to a metabolic stress, which often precipitates an encephalopathic crisis and the development of dystonia in GA-I patients, failed to have any neurologic effect on the mice. We hypothesize that the lack of similarity in regards to the neurologic phenotype and striatal pathology of GA-I patients, as compared with the Gcdh–/– mice, is due to intrinsic differences between the striata of mice and men.

Journal Article.  7160 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Genetics and Genomics

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