Journal Article

Sequences Flanking the Centromere of Human Chromosome 10 Are a Complex Patchwork of Arm-Specific Sequences, Stable Duplications and Unstable Sequences with Homologies to Telomeric and Other Centromeric Locations

M. S. Jackson, M. Rocchi, G. Thompson, T. Hearn, M. Crosier, J. Guy, D. Kirk, L. Mulligan, A. Ricco, S. Piccininni, R. Marzella, L. Viggiano and N. Archidiacono

in Human Molecular Genetics

Volume 8, issue 2, pages 205-215
Published in print February 1999 | ISSN: 0964-6906
Published online February 1999 | e-ISSN: 1460-2083 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/8.2.205
Sequences Flanking the Centromere of Human Chromosome 10 Are a Complex Patchwork of Arm-Specific Sequences, Stable Duplications and Unstable Sequences with Homologies to Telomeric and Other Centromeric Locations

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Little is known about sequence organization close to human centromeres, despite empirical and theoretical data which suggest that it may be unusual. Here we present maps which physically define large sequence duplications flanking the centromeric satellites of human chromosome 10, together with a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of pericentromeric sequence stability. Our results indicate that the duplications on each chromosome arm are organized into two blocks of ∼250 and 150 kb separated by ∼300 kb of non-duplicated DNA. The larger proximal blocks, containing ZNF11A, ZNF33A and ZNF37A (10p11) and ZNF11B, ZNF33B and ZNF37B (10q11), are inverted. However, the smaller distal blocks, containing D10S141A (10p11) and D10S141B (10q11), are not. A primate FISH analysis indicates that these loci were duplicated before the divergence of orang-utans from other Great Apes, that a cytogenetically cryptic pericentric inversion may have been involved in the formation of the flanking duplications and that they have undergone further rearrangement in other primate species. More surprising is the fact that sequences across the entire pericentromeric region appear to have undergone unprecedented levels of duplication, transposition, inversion and either deletion or sequence divergence in all primate species analysed. Extrapolating our data to the whole genome suggests that a minimum of 50 Mb of DNA in centromere-proximal regions is subject to an elevated level of mechanistically diverse sequence rearrangements compared with the bulk of genomic DNA.

Journal Article.  9032 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Genetics and Genomics

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