Journal Article

H4 Acetylation, <i>XIST</i> RNA and Replication Timing are Coincident and Define X;autosome Boundaries in Two Abnormal X Chromosomes

Ann M. Keohane, Andrew L. Barlow, Jonathan Waters, David Bourn and Bryan M. Turner

in Human Molecular Genetics

Volume 8, issue 2, pages 377-383
Published in print February 1999 | ISSN: 0964-6906
Published online February 1999 | e-ISSN: 1460-2083 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/8.2.377
H4 Acetylation, XIST RNA and Replication Timing are Coincident and Define X;autosome Boundaries in Two Abnormal X Chromosomes

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The inactive X (Xi) differs from its active homologue (Xa) in a number of ways, including increased methylation of CpG islands, replication late in S phase, underacetylation of histone H4 and association with XIST RNA. Global changes in DNA methylation occur relatively late in development, but the other properties all change during or shortly after the establishment of Xi and may play a role in the mechanism by which an inactive chromatin conformation spreads across most of the chromosome. In the present report, we use two human X;autosome translocation chromosomes to study the spreading of inactive X chromatin across X;autosome boundaries. In one of these chromosomes, t(X;6), Xp distal to p11.2 is replaced by 6p21.1–6pter and, in the other, ins(X;16), a small fragment derived from 16p13 is inserted into the distal third of Xq. In lymphoid cells from patients carrying these translocations in an unbalanced form, Xi was shown by HUMARA assay to be derived exclusively [t(X:6)] or predominantly [ins (X;16)] from the derived X chromosome. We used a combination of immunolabelling and RNA/DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization to define the distribution of XISTRNA, deacetylated H4 and late-replicating DNA across the two derived X chromosomes in inactive form. Within the limits of the cytogenetic techniques employed, the results show complete coincidence of these three parameters, with all three being excluded from the autosomal component of the derived X chromosome.

Journal Article.  5002 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Genetics and Genomics

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