Journal Article

A novel sequence-based approach to localize translocation breakpoints identifies the molecular basis of a t(4;22)

Manjunath A. Nimmakayalu, Anthony L. Gotter, Tamim H. Shaikh and Beverly S. Emanuel

in Human Molecular Genetics

Volume 12, issue 21, pages 2817-2825
Published in print November 2003 | ISSN: 0964-6906
Published online November 2003 | e-ISSN: 1460-2083 | DOI:
A novel sequence-based approach to localize translocation breakpoints identifies the molecular basis of a t(4;22)

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Low copy repeats (LCRs) located in 22q11.2, especially LCR-B, are susceptible to rearrangements associated with several relatively common constitutional disorders. These include DiGeorge syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, Cat-eye syndrome and recurrent translocations of 22q11 including the constitutional t(11;22) and t(17;22). The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) within LCR-B of 22q11.2, as well as within the 11q23 and 17q11 regions, has suggested a palindrome-mediated, stem-loop mechanism for the generation of such recurring constitutional 22q11.2 translocations. The mechanism responsible for non-recurrent 22q11.2 rearrangements is presently unknown due to the extensive effort required for breakpoint cloning. Thus, we have developed a novel fluorescence in-situ hybridization and primed in-situ hybridization (PRINS) approach and rapidly localized the breakpoint of a non-recurrent 22q11.2 translocation, a t(4;22). Multiple primer pairs were designed from the sequence of a 200 kb, chromosome 4, breakpoint-spanning BAC to generate PRINS probes. Amplification of adjacent primer pairs, labeled in two colors, allowed us to narrow the 4q35.1 breakpoint to a 6.7 kb clonable region. Application of our improved PRINS protocol facilitated fine-mapping the translocation breakpoints within 4q35.1 and 22q11.2, and permitted rapid cloning and analysis of translocation junction fragments. To confirm the PRINS localization results, PCR mapping of t(4;22) somatic cell hybrid DNA was employed. Analysis of the breakpoints demonstrates the presence of a 554 bp palindromic sequence at the chromosome 4 breakpoint and a 22q11.2 location within the same PATRR as the recurrent t(11;22) and t(17;22). The sequence of this breakpoint further suggests that a stem-loop secondary structure mechanism is responsible for the formation of other, non-recurrent translocations involving LCR-B of 22q11.2.

Journal Article.  6431 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Genetics and Genomics

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