Journal Article

Recessively inherited right atrial isomerism caused by mutations in <i>growth/differentiation factor 1</i> (<i>GDF1</i>)

Eevi Kaasinen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Marianne Eronen, Pia Vahteristo, Auli Karhu, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Eero Kajantie, Lauri A. Aaltonen and Rainer Lehtonen

in Human Molecular Genetics

Volume 19, issue 14, pages 2747-2753
Published in print July 2010 | ISSN: 0964-6906
Published online April 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2083 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddq164
Recessively inherited right atrial isomerism caused by mutations in growth/differentiation factor 1 (GDF1)

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Right atrial isomerism (RAI) is a heterotaxy syndrome with disturbances in the left–right axis development, resulting in complex heart malformations and abnormal lateralization of other thoracic and abdominal organs. Although autosomal-recessive inheritance of heterotaxy syndrome is seen in multiple families, underlying gene defects have remained unknown. Here we identify the molecular genetic basis of a kindred with five siblings with RAI. Linkage analysis and positional candidate gene approach showed that the affected children were compound heterozygotes for truncating mutations in the growth/differentiation factor 1 (GDF1) gene. Individuals heterozygous for the mutations were clinically healthy. This finding, supported by the similar phenotype in Gdf1 knockout mouse, provides firm evidence that RAI can occur as a recessively inherited condition, with GDF1 as the culprit gene. The results will shed light on the biological basis of human laterality defects and facilitate molecular diagnosis of RAI.

Journal Article.  3273 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Genetics and Genomics

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