Journal Article

A 2-year comparative study of endometrial histology and cervical cytology of contraceptive implant users in Birmingham, UK.

L Mascarenhas, A van Beek, H C Bennink and J Newton

in Human Reproduction

Published on behalf of European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

Volume 13, issue 11, pages 3057-3060
Published in print November 1998 | ISSN: 0268-1161
Published online November 1998 | e-ISSN: 1460-2350 | DOI:
A 2-year comparative study of endometrial histology and cervical cytology of contraceptive implant users in Birmingham, UK.

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Changes in endometrial histology and cervical cytology related to use of two contraceptive implants were investigated in a 2-year prospective study conducted at Birmingham (UK) Women's Hospital. 60 women with regular menstrual cycles were randomly assigned to receive either Implanon (etonogestrel/3-keto-desogestrel) or Norplant (levonorgestrel). After 12 months of implant use, most endometrial samples in both groups were inactive or only weakly proliferative. After 24 months, this pattern remained unchanged in the Implanon group. It was more diverse, however, in the Norplant group, where there was evidence of proliferative-phase endometrium. Endometrial thickness, assessed quarterly by transvaginal ultrasound scans, was significantly reduced in users of both implants. Cervical cytology remained unchanged from baseline to 24 months. These findings suggest that users of both implant systems are not at increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma, cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia, or cervical carcinoma.

Keywords: Biology; Cervical Effects; Cervix; Clinical Research; Comparative Studies; Contraception; Contraceptive Agents, Female--pharmacodynamics; Contraceptive Agents, Progestin--pharmacodynamics; Contraceptive Agents--pharmacodynamics; Contraceptive Implants--side effects; Contraceptive Methods--side effects; Cytologic Effects; Desogestrel--pharmacodynamics; Developed Countries; Endometrial Effects; Endometrium; Europe; Family Planning; Genitalia; Genitalia, Female; Histochemical Effects; Levonorgestrel--pharmacodynamics; Northern Europe; Physiology; Research Methodology; Research Report; Studies; United Kingdom; Urogenital System; Uterus

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Reproductive Medicine

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