Journal Article

Positive virological outcome after lopinavir/ritonavir salvage therapy in protease inhibitor-experienced HIV-1-infected children: a prospective cohort study

Salvador Resino, José Mª Bellón, José Tomás Ramos, Milagros Gonzalez-Rivera, Mª Isabel de José, Mª Isabel González, Dolores Gurbindo, Mª José Mellado, Esther Cabrero and Mª Ángeles Muñoz-Fernaández

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Published on behalf of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Volume 54, issue 5, pages 921-931
Published in print November 2004 | ISSN: 0305-7453
Published online November 2004 | e-ISSN: 1460-2091 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkh431
Positive virological outcome after lopinavir/ritonavir salvage therapy in protease inhibitor-experienced HIV-1-infected children: a prospective cohort study

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  • Medical Oncology
  • Critical Care

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Background: Lopinavir/ritonavir has demonstrated antiviral activity in the HIV-infected patient.

Objective: To analyse virological response to lopinavir/ritonavir therapy in previously protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced HIV-1-infected children.

Materials and methods: Sixty-seven HIV-1-children on lopinavir/ritonavir were studied in a multicentre prospective cohort observational study. The outcome variables were undetectable viral load (uVL; VL ≤400 copies/mL) and virological failure after uVL with a rebound of VL >400 copies/mL. VL and genotype of HIV-1-isolates were measured using standard assays.

Results: 83.5% of children had a 1 log10 VL decrease including 65.6% who reached uVL. Children with >2 changes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or >5 drugs needed a median time of 3–4 months higher than children with ≤2 changes of ART or ≤5 drugs previous to lopinavir/ritonavir, to reach those values, and the relative proportions (RP) were 2.2 (P =0.038) and 1.9 (P=0.050), respectively. Children with CD4+>15% (P=0.122), VL ≤30 000 (P < 0.001) copies/mL, and age >12 years (P=0.096) achieved an earlier control of VL during the follow-up. The children with virological failure or rebound of VL had higher baseline VL and lower CD4+ T-lymphocytes/mm3 and had taken a greater number of drugs previous to lopinavir/ritonavir. HIV-children with a new nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), or protease inhibitor (PI) or PI plus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) in the current regimen had a better virological response than children without these new drugs. Also, children with <6 protease mutations had an RP of 2.31 of achieving uVL.

Conclusions: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) including lopinavir/ritonavir induces beneficial effects in terms of virological outcome responses, and it is an effective option for salvage therapy in PI-experienced HIV-1-infected children.

Keywords: CD4+ T-lymphocytes; viral load; HAART

Journal Article.  6076 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Oncology ; Critical Care

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