Journal Article

Evaluation of ceftriaxone, vancomycin and rifampicin alone and combined in an experimental model of meningitis caused by highly cephalosporin-resistant <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> ATCC 51916

Sandra Ribes, Ferran Taberner, Alejandro Domenech, Carmen Cabellos, Fe Tubau, Josefina Liñares, Pedro Fernández Viladrich and Francesc Gudiol

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Published on behalf of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Volume 56, issue 5, pages 979-982
Published in print November 2005 | ISSN: 0305-7453
Published online September 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2091 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dki323
Evaluation of ceftriaxone, vancomycin and rifampicin alone and combined in an experimental model of meningitis caused by highly cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 51916

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Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of ceftriaxone, vancomycin and rifampicin alone and combined against Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 51916 (MIC of ceftriaxone: 32 mg/L).

Methods: In vitro killing curves were performed with clinically achievable CSF antibiotic concentrations. In the rabbit model of pneumococcal meningitis, we studied the efficacy of and effects on inflammation of treatment with ceftriaxone 100 mg/kg/day, vancomycin 30 mg/kg/day and rifampicin 15 mg/kg/day, alone and combined, over a 26 h period.

Results: Time–kill curves showed that vancomycin was bactericidal, and ceftriaxone and rifampicin produced a bacteriostatic effect. An additive effect was observed when combinations of ceftriaxone plus vancomycin were studied at subinhibitory concentrations. Emergence of resistance to rifampicin was detected both when rifampicin was studied alone and when combined with ceftriaxone or vancomycin. In the rabbit meningitis model, ceftriaxone was bacteriostatic, whereas rifampicin and vancomycin were bactericidal at 24 h. Although not synergistic, the combinations of ceftriaxone plus vancomycin or rifampicin, and vancomycin plus rifampicin, improved the efficacy of any antibiotic tested alone—all combinations were bactericidal from 6 h—and significantly decreased inflammatory parameters in CSF compared with control and ceftriaxone groups.

Conclusion: Ceftriaxone plus vancomycin, and vancomycin plus rifampicin appeared to be effective in the therapy of experimental pneumococcal meningitis caused by highly cephalosporin-resistant strains such as ATCC 51916. Our results provide an experimental basis for using these combinations as empirical therapy for pneumococcal meningitis, regardless of the degree of cephalosporin resistance of the causative strain.

Keywords: β-lactams; glycopeptides; empirical therapy; bacterial meningitis

Journal Article.  2413 words. 

Subjects: Medical Oncology ; Critical Care

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