Journal Article

Development and Validation of a Nonisotopic Immunoassay for the Detection of LSD in Human Urine

Nick P. Cassells, Derek H. Craston, Chris W. Hand and Dene Baldwin

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 20, issue 6, pages 409-415
Published in print October 1996 | ISSN: 0146-4760
e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/20.6.409
Development and Validation of a Nonisotopic Immunoassay for the Detection of LSD in Human Urine

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A microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human urine was developed. The assay kit is designed around an LSD derivative coated on the wall of microplate wells with preservatives and stabilizers. Sample and rabbit anti-LSD are added to the microplate well. The immobilized LSD and LSD present in specimens compete for the opportunity to bind to the anti-LSD antibodies. An anti-rabbit antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase is used to provide the assay signal, which is inversely proportional to the concentration of LSD in the sample. The assay requires a 25-µL urine sample and three consecutive incubation periods of 60, 30, and 30 rain at room temperature. The assay was tested with a variety of drugs, including ergot alkaloids spiked into drug-free urine at up to 100,000 ng/mL without cross-reaction. Nor-LSD was shown to cross-react between 16% and 28%, depending on its concentration. Of the other compounds tested, only ergonovine demonstrated slight cross-reactivity at approximately 0.0008%. The assay is designed to be used with a qualitative cutoff of 0.5 ng/mL. Precision testing at 0.5 ng/mL gave a coefficient of variation (CV) of 6% based on 20 replicates. The CV at 0.375 ng/mL (cutoff, −25%) was 5.2% and at 0.625 ng/mL was 6.6%. Precision at other concentrations within the range of the calibration curve gave similar results both intra- and interassay. Clinical performance of the assay was compared with that of a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA). Comparable performance was observed with both methods, each screening a total of 458 samples as negative and 17 samples as positive relative to a 0.5 ng/mL cutoff. The EIA found an additional three positive samples that were negative by RIA. The EIA is suitable for the screening of urine samples for the presence of LSD. Preliminary indications are that the assay is also suitable for use with whole blood specimens. The assay can be performed manually or be fully automated and without the need for radioactivity; it can be used in any laboratory.

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Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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