Journal Article

Urinary Lithium: Distribution Shape, Reference Values, and Evaluation of Exposure by Inductively Coupled Plasma Argon-Emission Spectrometry

Kozo Iguchi, Kan Usuda, Koichi Kono, Tomotaro Dote, Hiroyuki Nishiura, Masashi Shimahara and Yoshihito Tanaka

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 23, issue 1, pages 17-23
Published in print January 1999 | ISSN: 0146-4760
Published online January 1999 | e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/23.1.17
Urinary Lithium: Distribution Shape, Reference Values, and Evaluation of Exposure by Inductively Coupled Plasma Argon-Emission Spectrometry

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Inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry (ICPAES) was used to evaluate the lithium content of undiluted urine samples. The method can be performed with 1 mL of urine in a single tube using a routine ICPAES analysis for rapid and convenient assessment of lithium exposure in humans. Urine samples obtained from male workers (n = 86) who had not been exposed to lithium were used for the determination of this element by ICPAES. The obtained concentrations were corrected using a specific gravity of 1.024. The particular frequency distribution resulted in a log-normal distribution diagram for anatomical spread. Geometric mean value for urinary lithium in the nonexposed male workers was 23.5 µg/L, and the confidence interval from a log-normal distribution was 11.0 to 50.5 µg/L. Taking into consideration a short biological half-life and the massive urine excretion of lithium, urinary lithium was considered to be a useful index for monitoring of exposure. Calibration curves obtained for lithium standards had good sensitivity and linearity. Good reproducibility was assessed by lithium addition to urine samples. It was concluded that the obtained lithium reference values would be useful for the early diagnosis of lithium intoxication or in the assessment of the degree of exposure to lithium in subjects at risk.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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