Journal Article

Development and Evaluation of an Improved Method for Screening of Amphetamines*

J. Shindelman, J. Mahal, G. Hemphill, P. Pizzo and W.A. Coty

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 23, issue 6, pages 506-510
Published in print October 1999 | ISSN: 0146-4760
Published online October 1999 | e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/23.6.506
Development and Evaluation of an Improved Method for Screening of Amphetamines*

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We developed a homogeneous immunoassay method to eliminate false-positive amphetamine results caused by cross-reactive substances, including over-the-counter allergy and cold medications. This method uses a neutralizing antibody that binds to amphetamines but does not bind to the labeled amphetamine conjugate used in the assay. The amount of neutralizing antibody is sufficient to reduce the assay signal resulting from authentic amphetamine and methamphetamine, but not the signal resulting from cross-reactants. This concept was implemented using the CEDIA® DAU Amphetamines assay on Hitachi 747 and 717 clinical chemistry analyzers. Urine samples were tested using the standard, unmodified reagents in one channel and reagents containing the neutralizing antibody in a second channel. The difference in rate between the two tests was calculated by the analyzer; true-positive samples showed a significantly greater decrease in assay signal in response to neutralizing antibody as compared with false-positive samples. The neutralization method was evaluated in two studies using 448 samples that tested positive in the initial CEDIA DAU Amphetamines screening test. The samples were separated into categories of 154 true-positive samples and 294 false-positive samples based upon a secondary screen with the Abbott FPIA Amphetamines assay followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) testing using the HHS (SAMHSA) cutoff criteria. The CEDIA neutralization test successfully identified all 154 of the GC-MS confirmed positive samples. The test successfully identified as false positive 251 out of the 294 (85.4%) samples that failed to confirm by GC-MS.

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Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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