Journal Article

Quantitation of Biomarkers of Exposure to Nitrogen Mustards in Urine from Rats Dosed with Nitrogen Mustards and from an Unexposed Human Population*

Sharon W. Lemire, John R. Barr, David L. Ashley, Carl T. Olson and Timothy L. Hayes

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 28, issue 5, pages 320-326
Published in print July 2004 | ISSN: 0146-4760
Published online July 2004 | e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/28.5.320
Quantitation of Biomarkers of Exposure to Nitrogen Mustards in Urine from Rats Dosed with Nitrogen Mustards and from an Unexposed Human Population*

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The nitrogen mustards bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine (HN1), bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine (HN2), and tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) have the potential to be used as chemical terrorism agents because of their extreme vesicant properties. We modified a previously reported method to incorporate automated solid-phase extraction, improve chromatography, and include the urinary metabolite for HN3. The improved method was used to measure levels of the urinary metabolites N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) in rats dosed with HN1, HN2, and HN3, respectively, and to establish background levels of EDEA, MDEA, and TEA in human urine samples from a population with no known exposure to nitrogen mustards. Rat dosing experiments confirmed that EDEA, MDEA, and TEA could be detected in urine for at least 48 h after exposure to HN1, HN2, and HN3, respectively. Substantial amounts of EDEA (89 ng/mL), MDEA (170 ng/mL), and TEA (1105 ng/mL) were measured in the urine of rats exposed to 10 mg HN1, HN2, and HN3, respectively, 48 h after exposure. The background concentrations for TEA in the human population ranged from below the limit of detection (LOD 3 ng/mL) to approximately 6500 ng/mL. Neither EDEA (LOD 0.4 ng/mL) nor MDEA (LOD 0.8 ng/mL) was detected above the LOD in the human samples.

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Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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