Journal Article

Multiple Aspects of Hair Analysis for Opiates: Methodology, Clinical and Workplace Populations, Codeine, and Poppy Seed Ingestion

Virginia Hill, Thomas Cairns, Chen-Chih Cheng and Michael Schaffer

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 29, issue 7, pages 696-703
Published in print October 2005 | ISSN: 0146-4760
Published online October 2005 | e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/29.7.696
Multiple Aspects of Hair Analysis for Opiates: Methodology, Clinical and Workplace Populations, Codeine, and Poppy Seed Ingestion

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Levels of morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (MAM) and codeine in hair in both clinical and workplace subjects are presented. Aggressive wash procedures, consisting of 1 isopropanol wash, three 30-min, and two 1-h buffer washes, followed by digestion, extraction and confirmation of digested samples, resulted in values from the cutoff of 2 ng morphine/10 mg hair to greater than 200 ng/10 mg hair. Both morphine and MAM were present above the cutoff in all hair samples from 69 clinical subjects. Only 39 of the 69 heroin-using subjects had urine tests positive for 6-MAM. In a study of morphine in hair following poppy seed consumption, ten subjects ingested 150 g of poppy seed over 3 weeks. Urine samples were collected on the days of poppy seed ingestion and hair samples were taken in the 5th week of the study. The range among the 10 subjects of the highest urine value for each subject was 2929 to 13,827 ng morphine/mL. Hair morphine levels were 0.05–0.48 ng/10 mg hair (average 0.17 ng/10 mg hair). Hair opiate levels of workplace subjects ranged somewhat lower than those of clinical subjects. While all clinical hair samples contained MAM, many workplace samples did not. From workplace samples, a maximum amount of morphine likely to be present from codeine use was 0–3.7% of the codeine in the hair.

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Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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