Journal Article

Identification and Quantification of Nicotine Biomarkers in Human Oral Fluid from Individuals Receiving Low-Dose Transdermal Nicotine: A Preliminary Study

Eleanor I. Miller, Hye-Ryun K. Norris, Douglas E. Rollins, Stephen T. Tiffany, Christine M. Moore, Michael J. Vincent, Alpana Agrawal and Diana G. Wilkins

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 34, issue 7, pages 357-366
Published in print September 2010 | ISSN: 0146-4760
Published online September 2010 | e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/34.7.357
Identification and Quantification of Nicotine Biomarkers in Human Oral Fluid from Individuals Receiving Low-Dose Transdermal Nicotine: A Preliminary Study

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The objective of this preliminary study was to identify and quantify potential nicotine (NIC) biomarkers in post-exposure oral fluid samples collected from 10 NIC-abstinent human participants administered 7 mg transdermal NIC using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Oral fluid samples were collected prior to NIC patch application and at 0.5 and 0.75 h after patch removal using the Quantisal™ oral fluid collection device. The validated LC-MS-MS analyte panel included nicotine-N-β-D-glucuronide, cotinine-N-oxide, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, norcotinine, trans-nicotine-1l-N-oxide, cotinine (COT), nornicotine, NIC, anatabine, anabasine, and cotinine-N-β-D-glucuronide. Analytes and corresponding deuterated internal standards were extracted by solid-phase extraction. NIC and COT concentrations were quantifiable in oral fluid samples collected from 6 of the 10 participants 0.5 h after patch removal and in oral fluid samples collected from 7 of the 10 participants 0.75 h after patch removal. Based on the mean NIC and COT concentrations in oral fluid and plasma for the participants with both quantifiable NIC and COT at the 0.5 and 0.75 h collection times, the oral fluid-plasma ratio was 6.4 for NIC and 3.3 for COT. An ELISA procedure was also validated and successfully applied as a screening tool for these oral fluid samples in conjunction with LC-MS-MS confirmation. An ELISA cut-off concentration of 5.0 ng/mL provided excellent sensitivity for discrimination of COT-positive post-exposure oral fluid samples collected after low-level transdermal NIC exposure and oral fluid samples collected prior to patch application.

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Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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