Journal Article

Detection of 1-Benzylpiperazine, 1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine, and 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)-piperazine in 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Positive Urine Samples*

Amber J. Dickson, Shawn P. Vorce, Justin M. Holler and Timothy P. Lyons

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 34, issue 8, pages 464-469
Published in print October 2010 | ISSN: 0146-4760
Published online October 2010 | e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/34.8.464
Detection of 1-Benzylpiperazine, 1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine, and 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)-piperazine in 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Positive Urine Samples*

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Historically, ecstasy tablets contained 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as the psychoactive component. In recent years, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and other law enforcement agencies have seized ecstasy tablets that are comprised of psychoactive drugs or drug mixtures other than MDMA. Many jurisdictions have reported the presence of piperazine derivatives including 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine (TFMPP), and 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-piperazine (mCPP) in ecstasy tablets. These piperazine derivatives produce stimulant and psychoactive effects similar to those produced by MDMA, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. In many countries, their use is not controlled, and therefore they have become a legal alternative to MDMA. For this study, a targeted population of 251 MDMA-positive urine samples were analyzed for designer drugs, including the piperazine derivatives. A basic liquid-liquid extraction followed by pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatization and a full scan (m/z 42–550) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to screen the urine samples for 33 designer drugs. Overall, in 36% of the specimens analyzed, a stimulant or psychoactive compound other than MDMA and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) was detected. BZP, TFMPP, and mCPP were detected in 15%, 7%, and 1% of the samples, respectively.

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Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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