Journal Article

Comparison of Relative Distribution of Ketamine and Norketamine in Decomposed Skeletal Tissues Following Single and Repeated Exposures

James H. Watterson, Joseph P. Donohue and Caroline C. Betit

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Volume 36, issue 6, pages 429-433
Published in print July 2012 | ISSN: 0146-4760
Published online May 2012 | e-ISSN: 1945-2403 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bks045
Comparison of Relative Distribution of Ketamine and Norketamine in Decomposed Skeletal Tissues Following Single and Repeated Exposures

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Bone was analyzed for ketamine and norketamine to examine whether different patterns of drug exposure could be discriminated. Rats received (intraperitoneally) one 75 mg/kg dose (Acute-1 and Acute-2 groups), three 25-mg/kg doses 1 hour apart (Repeated group), or nine single daily ketamine doses of 75 mg/kg followed by a 24-h washout period (Chronic group). Following euthanasia, all animals decomposed to skeleton outdoors. Ground samples of recovered bone underwent methanolic extraction and analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. Drug levels (mass normalized response ratios) were compared across bone types and exposure pattern. Bone type significantly influenced drug level for the Acute-1 and Repeated dose groups, and the drug/metabolite level ratio (DMLR) for the Acute-1 group. Mean ketamine and norketamine level and DMLR varied by up to 8-fold, 7-fold and 3-fold, respectively, in the Acute-1 group, and by up to 24-fold, 5-fold and 10-fold, respectively, in the Repeated group. Drug level and DMLR differed significantly between the Acute-1 and Repeated groups for most bone types. In the Chronic group, only 1/16 and 4/16 samples were positive for ketamine and norketamine, respectively. All Acute-2 samples were positive for ketamine and norketamine. The Acute-2 and Chronic groups differed significantly in ketamine and norketamine levels, and DMLR.

Journal Article.  3529 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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