Journal Article

Estrogen Receptor–Positive, Progesterone Receptor–Negative Breast Cancer: Association With Growth Factor Receptor Expression and Tamoxifen Resistance

Grazia Arpino, Heidi Weiss, Adrian V. Lee, Rachel Schiff, Sabino De Placido, C. Kent Osborne and Richard M. Elledge

in JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Volume 97, issue 17, pages 1254-1261
Published in print September 2005 | ISSN: 0027-8874
Published online September 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2105 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/dji249

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Background: Clinical data indicate that estrogen receptor–positive/progesterone receptor–negative (ER+/PR) breast cancers are less sensitive to tamoxifen than are ER+/PR+ tumors. It has also been reported that tamoxifen may be less effective in tumors that overexpress either HER-2 or HER-1 (epidermal growth factor receptor) and that signaling through these receptors reduces PR expression in experimental models. We hypothesized that ER+/PR breast tumors are more likely than ER+/PR+ breast tumors to have an aggressive phenotype, to express HER-1 and overexpress HER-2, and are less likely to benefit from tamoxifen adjuvant therapy. Methods: Clinical and biological features of 31 415 patients with ER+/PR+ tumors were compared with those of 13 404 patients with ER+/PR tumors. Association between disease-free survival (DFS) and HER-1 and HER-2 status was analyzed in a subset of 11 399 patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression or Kaplan–Meier analyses, and all statistical tests were two-sided. Results: ER+/PR tumors were more frequent in older patients, were larger in size, had a higher S-phase fraction, and were more likely to be aneuploid than ER+/PR+ tumors. Furthermore, three times as many ER+/PR tumors as ER+/PR+ tumors expressed HER-1 (25% versus 8%; P<.001) and 50% more overexpressed HER-2 (21% versus 14%; P<.001). Among all tamoxifen-treated women, recurrence was higher among women with HER-1–expressing tumors than with HER-1–negative tumors (HR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0 to 3.5; P = .05); a stronger association between worse DFS and HER-2 overexpression was observed (HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.3; P = .006). However, results varied by PR status. Among tamoxifen-treated women with ER+/PR+ tumors, HER-1 or HER-2 status was not associated with worse DFS. Among women with ER+/PR tumors, however, both HER-1 expression (HR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.0 to 5.4; P = .036) and HER-2 overexpression (HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1 to 6.0; P = .022) were associated with a higher likelihood of recurrence. Conclusions: ER+/PR tumors express higher levels of HER-1 and HER-2 and display more aggressive features than ER+/PR+ tumors. As in laboratory models, lack of PR expression in ER+ tumors may be a surrogate marker of aberrant growth factor signaling that could contribute to the tamoxifen resistance observed in these tumors.

Journal Article.  6336 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Oncology

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