Journal Article

Central Nervous System Vasculopathy in HIV-Infected Children Enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219/219C Study

John S. Schieffelin, Paige L. Williams, Divna Djokic, Jeffrey P. Anderson, Sharon Nachman, James M. Oleske, George R. Seage and Russell B. Van Dyke

in Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Published on behalf of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Volume 2, issue 1, pages 50-56
Published in print March 2013 | ISSN: 2048-7193
Published online October 2012 | e-ISSN: 2048-7207 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/pis095
Central Nervous System Vasculopathy in HIV-Infected Children Enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219/219C Study

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Background

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculopathy has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus–infected (HIV+) adults and children. In children, it often presents with HIV encephalopathy, stroke, or intracerebral aneurysms. The etiology, incidence, and risk factors of HIV-associated CNS vasculopathy in children are unknown.

Methods

We identified HIV+ children with a diagnosis of vasculopathy or other cerebrovascular events among children enrolled between 1993 and 2004 in 2 prospective, multicenter cohort studies. Demographic and laboratory data, history of antiretroviral use, and signs, symptoms, and diagnostic studies pertaining to the CNS event were reviewed.

Results

Among the 3338 HIV+ children, 51 had diagnoses that suggested CNS vasculopathy. Of these, 12 (24%) were included in this analysis, after excluding those with alternative diagnoses and those from closed sites. Among these 12, 4 (33%) were female, 4 (33%) were white, and 10 (83%) had perinatal HIV. Their average age at the event was 10.8 years with a median CD4 count of 22 cells/mm3 and median HIV-1 viral load of 94 304 copies/mL. Fifty-eight percent of subjects had a history of opportunistic infections before the CNS event. Fifty percent had cerebral aneurysms on imaging. The overall incidence among HIV+ subjects was 3.4 cases per 10 000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 1.8–6.0).

Conclusions

CNS vasculopathy in HIV+ children is uncommon but more common than in the general pediatric population. Cerebral aneurysms are the most common manifestation. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, older children and those with low CD4 counts and high HIV viral loads are at the highest risk.

Keywords: HIV; Vasculopathy; Pediatrics; CNS

Journal Article.  4116 words. 

Subjects: Infectious Diseases ; Immunology ; Public Health and Epidemiology ; Microbiology

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