Francis Lieber (1798–1872)

Silja Vöneky

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law

Published in print November 2012 | ISBN: 9780199599752
Published online December 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbooks in Law

 Francis Lieber (1798–1872)

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This chapter examines the contribution of Francis Lieber to international law. Lieber’s significant impact on the development of international law and humanization of the laws of war contributed to his universal appreciation; this is evident in the 21st century even more than during his lifetime. On behalf of US President Lincoln, Lieber prepared the General Order No 100 containing the Instructions for the Government of the Armies of the United States in the Field of 24 April 1863, which has since become known as the Lieber Code. The Code was adopted by the United States to inform the military personnel of the armed forces of the Union during the American Civil War (1861–1865) about the rules of the laws of war. The Code was an internal non-binding code of conduct and the first national manual on the laws of armed conflict.

Keywords: Lieber Code; laws of war; international law; General Order 100; American Civil War

Article.  1687 words. 

Subjects: Law ; History of Law ; International Law

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