Friedrich Fromhold Von Martens (Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens) (1845–1909)

Lauri Mälksoo

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law

Published in print November 2012 | ISBN: 9780199599752
Published online December 2012 | | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbooks in Law

Friedrich Fromhold Von Martens (Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens) (1845–1909)

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Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens was the foremost Russian international lawyer of the Tsarist period. His most significant work was the first comprehensive Russian textbook on international law, Contemporary International Law of Civilised Nations (1882–1883). Martens was a frequent contributor to the leading international law journal of his time, Revue de droit international et de législation comparée. He was also a diplomat in the service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, and played a major role in the first Hague Peace Conference of 1899, which was convened at the initiative of Russia. The ‘Martens clause’ remains part of international humanitarian law until today and has been referred to in the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice. There exist quite different views on the legacy of Martens. One can distinguish between critical-dismissive, defensive-patriotic, and romantic-national views.

Keywords: Martens clause; Russia; international law; Hague Peace Conference; international humanitarian law

Article.  1624 words. 

Subjects: Law ; History of Law ; International Law

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