Journal Article

Sum and Product in Dynamic Epistemic Logic

H. P. van Ditmarsch, J. Ruan and R. Verbrugge

in Journal of Logic and Computation

Volume 18, issue 4, pages 563-588
Published in print August 2008 | ISSN: 0955-792X
Published online December 2007 | e-ISSN: 1465-363X | DOI:
Sum and Product in Dynamic Epistemic Logic

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The Sum-and-Product riddle was first published in the reference H. Freudenthal (1969, Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde 3, 152) [6]. We provide an overview on the history of the dissemination of this riddle through the academic and puzzle-math community. This includes some references to precursors of the riddle, that were previously (as far as we know) unknown.

We then model the Sum-and-Product riddle in a modal logic called public announcement logic. This logic contains operators for knowledge, but also operators for the informational consequences of public announcements. The logic is interpreted on multi-agent Kripke models. The information in the riddle can be represented in the traditional way by number pairs, so that Sum knows their sum and Product their product, but also as an interpreted system, so that Sum and Product at least know their local state. We show that the different representations are isomorphic. We also provide characteristic formulas of the initial epistemic state of the riddle. We analyse one of the announcements towards the solution of the riddle as a so-called unsuccessful update: a formula that becomes false because it is announced.

The riddle is then implemented and its solution verified in the epistemic model checker DEMO. This can be done, we think, surprisingly elegantly. The results are compared with other work in epistemic model checking and the complexity is experimentally investigated for several representations and parameter settings.

Keywords: Modal logic; puzzle math; dynamic epistemic logic; characteristic formula; model checking

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Computing ; Logic

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