Chapter

Other acquired secondary (symptomatic) dystonic syndromes

Ivan Donaldson, C. David Marsden, Susanne A. Schneider and Kailash P. Bhatia

in Marsden's Book of Movement Disorders

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192619112
Published online January 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199698103 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780192619112.003.1075
Other acquired secondary (symptomatic) dystonic syndromes

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This chapter deals with a series of miscellaneous acquired secondary dystonic syndromes. This wide range of conditions include those with a vascular cause, such as vasculitis, which often causes chorea and ballismus, but can also cause dystonia in some cases. Both viral and bacterial infections can cause dystonia. Viral infections that have been associated with dystonia include varicella, persistent measles infections and AIDS. Bacterial infections can also cause dystonic movements, with both tuberculosis and syphilis reported to do so in some cases. Demyelinating diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis), head trauma and hypoxia (for example induced by CO, cyanide or anaesthetic complications) can all also cause dystonia. A wide range of drugs can induce acute dystonic reactions, including drugs that either block dopamine receptors (e.g. phenothiazines, butyrophenones) or deplete central dopamine levels (e.g. tetrabenazine). Anticholinergic drugs can also induce acute reactions; these include tricyclic antidepressants and some oral or nasal decongestants. Other drugs that cause acute dystonic reactions include antibiotics, lithium cocaine, anticonvulsants (usually when overdosed) and serotonin uptake blockers. Other causes of acquired dystonia include wasp sting encephalopathy, degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, spinal cord disorders and tumours and peripheral nerve issues.

Chapter.  19042 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neurology

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