Chapter

Movement Disorders

Samuel A. Frank and Anna DePold Hohler

in Principles of Drug Therapy in Neurology

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print September 2010 | ISBN: 9780195146837
Published online April 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199322961 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780195146837.003.0078

Series: Contemporary Neurology Series

Movement Disorders

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Movement disorders are abnormal, involuntary contractions characterized by either too few movements (hypokinesias) or excessive movements (hyperkinesias). Typically, weakness is not a part of this class of disorders, but a lack of control of the body limits function. Descriptions of movement disorders date back many centuries for some diseases, but scientists continue to try to understand the involved anatomical structures, underlying pathophysiology, and mechanism of action of treatments. In this chapter, the anatomy of the basal ganglia will be discussed based on neurochemical and structural anatomy. Because the majority of patients with movement disorders have Parkinson’s disease (PD), the majority of the chapter will focus on PD, its treatments, and complications of treatments. There have been tremendous advances in therapies, many of which have emerged only since the late 1990s. In addition, nonmotor symptoms of PD and complications of therapy will also be briefly discussed. Other diseases that will be presented include Parkinson-plus syndromes, Huntington’s disease, Wilson’s disease, essential tremor, ataxia, and dystonia. There are many other movement disorders—such as Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome, tardive dyskinesias, akathisia, restless legs syndrome, myoclonus, and others that are interesting and relevant to patients—but these will not be covered in this chapter.

Chapter.  21302 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neurology

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