Chapter

Dementia and Related Disorders

Michael V. Johnston

in Principles of Drug Therapy in Neurology

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print September 2010 | ISBN: 9780195146837
Published online April 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199322961 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780195146837.003.0394

Series: Contemporary Neurology Series

Dementia and Related Disorders

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Cognitive disorders including dementia, mild cognitive impairment associated with aging, and deficits in attention and memory following traumatic brain injury, are common causes of disability. In 2007 it was estimated that more than five million people in the United States had Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including more than 12% of those over age 65 and more than 42% of those over age 85.1 As longevity increases, the number of individuals in the United States with AD is expected to expand to more than 13 million by 2050 if no intervention is found.2 The Center for Disease Control estimates that an additional five million Americans suffer from long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with traumatic brain injury.3 Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which raise synaptic levels of acetylcholine, and memantine, a blocker of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptor, have been shown to improve cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AD and are widely prescribed.4 These strategies are also being explored for use in other cognitive disorders. On the horizon are approaches directed at interrupting the formation of amyloid-containing plaques and neurofribrillary tangles associated with AD.5

Chapter.  18066 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neurology

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