Chapter

Brain and Behavior

Larry W. Swanson

in Brain Architecture

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print August 2011 | ISBN: 9780195378580
Published online September 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199965120 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780195378580.003.1062
Brain and Behavior

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  • Development of the Nervous System

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The first part of the book deals with the nervous system's basic divisions, which are especially important for describing location or position in the same sense as geographical information. This chapter provides an overview and synthesis of how the functional subsystems of the nervous system may be arranged. Theories about the functional organization of the nervous system go back to Classical Antiquity, but modern views are based on the cellular organization of neural networks pioneered by Cajal and his colleagues toward the end of the 19th century. Cajal himself introduced a three-component model of neural systems organization. In essence he equated output of the motor system with behavior and demonstrated two different ways to control motor system output. One is from the sensory system and mediates reflex responses, whereas the other is from the cognitive (cerebral) system and mediates voluntary responses. A modern version of this scheme is presented with three additional features. First, there is a third controller of motor system output from the behavioral state system; second there is spontaneous electrical activity in many if not all neurons; and third there is extensive feedback in the overall network.

Chapter.  4754 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Development of the Nervous System

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