Chapter

Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow and Blood-Brain Barrier Transport by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Positron Emission Tomography

Gary A. Rosenberg

in Molecular Physiology and Metabolism of the Nervous System

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print April 2012 | ISBN: 9780195394276
Published online April 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199322831 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780195394276.003.0006

Series: Contemporary Neurology Series

Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow and Blood-Brain Barrier Transport by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Positron Emission Tomography

Show Summary Details

Preview

The discovery of the mathematical equations for tomographic imaging by Godfrey Hounsfield in the mid-1970s led to the proliferation of studies on brain structure and function that have revolutionized the neurosciences and improved clinical practice. Brain images are now routinely available during life that were previously accessible only at autopsy. Initially, these images were made with x-rays by computed tomography (CT), but the same mathematical approach was applied to magnetic fields with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gamma rays with positron emission tomography (PET). All of these complex technologies require cooperation between teams of physicians, physicists, chemists, engineers, and computer scientists. While it is not necessary to understand the underlying mathematical principles to utilize the new technology, a basic understanding of each method aids in the selection of the appropriate clinical test or research tool. The basic equations that are now used to analyze hundreds of thousands of pixels to construct an image of a brain function are the same ones that were initially developed for single regions. Besides structural information, which was the primary value of early CT scanners, it is now possible to obtain images of brain chemistry with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and neural activity with functional MRI (fMRI) (Table 6–1).

Chapter.  11406 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neurology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Buy this work at Oxford University Press »

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.